The list of abbreviated operators from which this table was generated is in the previous post (Part One). Now we continue the slides from my 2007 presentation of a new Mathematica dialect.

**Suggestions for Wolfram Research**

- Use the Precedence table in documentation instead of Operator Input Forms table
- Add mouseover Tooltips with Precedence to all abbreviated operators so we can readily see their Precedence
- Map Tones on to all abbreviated operators' Tooltips, scaled appropriately, so we can mouseover them and hear their Precedence
- And liberate Tones from CellularAutomata; Tones should permeate Mathematica—Mathematica should sound like R2D2

**Questions for Wolfram Research**

- How does PrecedenceForm work?
- How do the "structural elements," all having Precedence = 670, work?
- Why not make Comma right-associative with actual Precedence 670 so we can write multiple-argument Prefix functions like this:

**f@a,b,c := g@i,j,k**

**Next: Syntax Problems 3, 4, 5 and 6**

**Nested matchfix violates various programming good practices**

"The guiding principle [of the order of statements of code] is the Principle of Proximity: Keep related actions together."

**Manipulate[**

**GraphicsRow[{Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]]},**

**Spacings -> Scaled[i], Frame -> True, Dividers -> All], {i, .1, 1}]**

"If you draw a box around each statement, they should not overlap."

"As a general principle, make the program read from top to bottom rather than jumping around. Experts agree that top-to-bottom order contributes most to readability."

"The Fundamental Theorem of Formatting is that good visual layout shows the logical structure of the program."

-Steve McConnell,

*Code Complete*

*'The price paid for functional style programs without excess auxiliary variables is "a large number of brackets."'*

*-*Michael Trott

**Postfix "afterthought" functions can't take arguments, which stymies extended command-line programming**

**For example, how do you enter options for Plot:**

**3 Cos[x] + 2 Cos[2 x] + Cos[3 x] //Plot[ ??]**

Initiates to functional programming need to learn to think "inside out" or right-to-left

Procedural programmers are often less than thrilled with functional syntax

We would like to write code to emphasize what's important and downplay what's not

**Illustration of Matchfix Readability Problems**

Compare three versions of a simple function using increasing numbers of optional arguments

Note the violation of the Principle of Proximity

Do boxes drawn around statements overlap?

In example #3, note the code is structured to emphasize whichever expression we wish, in this case, GraphicsRow, not Manipulate, which is just the "wrapper"

**Manipulate[GraphicsRow[{Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]]},**

**Spacings -> Scaled[i], Frame -> True, Dividers -> All], {i, .1, 1}]**

**Manipulate[ GraphicsRow[{Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]], Graphics[Disk[]]},**

**Spacings -> Scaled[i], Frame -> True, Dividers -> All,**

**Alignment -> {Center, Center} , AlignmentPoint -> Center,**

**AspectRatio -> Automatic, Axes -> False, AxesLabel -> None,**

**AxesOrigin -> Automatic, AxesStyle -> {}, Background -> None,**

**BaselinePosition -> Automatic, BaseStyle -> {},**

**ColorOutput -> Automatic, ContentSelectable -> Automatic,**

**DisplayFunction :> $DisplayFunction, Dividers -> None,**

**Epilog -> {}], {i, .1, 1}]**

**GraphicsRow[{Graphics@Disk[], Graphics@Disk[], Graphics@Disk[]},**

**Spacings -> Scaled@i, Frame -> True, Dividers -> All,**

**Alignment -> {Center, Center} , AlignmentPoint -> Center,**

**AspectRatio -> Automatic, Axes -> False, AxesLabel -> None,**

**AxesOrigin -> Automatic, AxesStyle -> {}, Background -> None,**

**BaselinePosition -> Automatic, BaseStyle -> {},**

**ColorOutput -> Automatic, ContentSelectable -> Automatic,**

**DisplayFunction :> $DisplayFunction, Dividers -> None, Epilog -> {}]**

**// Manipulate[#, {i, .1, 1}] &**

**And the more nested the function, the worse it is**

Postfix/Pure Function Style: Functional-Procedural Fusion

A Solution: extended usage of Postfix and pure Function

**expr7 [ expr6 [ expr5 [expr4 [expr3 [expr2 [expr1 ] ] ] ] ] ] ]**

Consider writing this, using Postfix and pure Function:

**expr1 // expr2 # & // expr3 # & // expr4 # & // expr5 # & // expr6 # & // expr7 # &**

And you can write it down the page, too:

**expr1 //**

**expr2 # & //**

**expr3 # & //**

**expr4 # & //**

**expr5 # & //**

**expr6 # & //**

**expr7 # &**

It works as simply as this:

**expr1 // expr2 #& is parsed as: expr2[expr1]**

Amounts to a fusion of procedural and functional styles

Functional programming that looks procedural

**FP Fusion Examples**

**Command line or one-liner**

**Sin@x//Plot[#,{x, -5, 5}]&**

**Extended one-liner or function**

This fits the general pattern of a class of functions. You generate some data or intialize a function, then perform a few transformations on it, and then you want to view it.

Here we write it as a readable one-liner, sequentially across the page.

**Clear@g; g@x_ := RandomReal[];**

**Table[g@i, {i, 100}] //Take[#, 80]& //100 #& //#^2& //ListPlot[#, Filling->Axis]&**

Or sequentially down the page, nice and clean.

**g@x_ := RandomReal[];**

**Table[g@i, {i, 100}] //**

**Take[#, 80]& //**

**100 #& //**

**#^2& //**

**ListPlot[#, Filling->Axis]&**

If needed, we can use variable assignment within Postfix statements by appropriate parentheses:

**Range@6 // (list1 = Partition[#, 3]) &; list1[[1]]**

{1, 2, 3}

**Summary**

Computer programming's destiny is to control high-order complexity

Mathematica is a modern scientific synthesis whose core is the most advanced programming language paradigm

Mathematica's destiny is to play a lead role in the scientific challenges of our age

Version 8 shows its capabilities go far beyond those of any other programming language

Prefix and FP Fusion are a suggested improvement in syntax toward more understandable and controllable programs

*Comments and suggestions are welcome:*lowlevelfunctionary@kriscarlson.com

**Acknowledgements and References**

Stephen Wolfram

*The Mathematica Book*

Code examples in A New Kind of Science

Roman Maeder, harry calkins

*A First Course in Mathematica*

*Programming in Mathematica*

Roman Maeder

*Programming in Mathematica 2nd Ed.*

*The Mathematica Programmer*

*The Mathematica Programmer II*

*Computer Science with Mathematica*

David B. Wagner

*Power Programming in Mathematica: The Kernel*

John W. Gray

*Mastering Mathematica, 2nd Ed.: Programming Methods and Applications*

Michael Trott

*The Mathematica Guidebook: Programming*

Paul R. Wellin, Richard J. Gaylord, and Samuel N. Kamin

*An Introduction to Programming with Mathematica, 3rd Ed.*

Christian Jacob

*Illustrating Evolutionary Computation with Mathematica*

Nancy Blachman

*Mathematica: A Practical Approach*

Stan Wagon

*Mathematica in Action*

And thanks to the attendees of this talk who had valuable suggestions, in particular Paul Abbott, and their forbearance of my first effort using a Mathematica slide show